Men HealthProstate Swell: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Prostate Swell: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


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The prostate gland, although small in size, plays a significant role in the male reproductive system. Situated just below the bladder and in front of the rectum, the prostate gland is prone to various conditions, one of which is swelling or enlargement. Prostate swelling, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate enlargement, can cause discomfort and disrupt normal urinary function in men. In this article, we delve into the intricacies of what causes the prostate to swell, its symptoms, and available treatments.

1. Anatomy and Function of the Prostate Gland

Before exploring the causes of prostate swelling, it’s essential to understand the anatomy and function of the prostate gland. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. Its primary function is to produce fluid that nourishes and protects sperm. During ejaculation, muscles in the prostate gland help propel this fluid into the urethra, where it mixes with sperm from the testicles to form semen.

2. What Causes the Prostate to Swell?

Prostate swelling typically occurs as men age, primarily due to hormonal changes. The exact cause of these changes is not fully understood, but several factors may contribute to prostate enlargement:

Hormonal Imbalance: Testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, is converted into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate gland. An imbalance in the levels of testosterone and DHT may lead to prostate enlargement.

Age: The risk of developing BPH increases with age. It is estimated that by the age of 60, over 50% of men will experience symptoms of prostate enlargement, and this figure rises to 90% by age 85.

Family History: Genetics may also play a role in the development of prostate swelling. Men with a family history of BPH are more likely to experience it themselves.

Lifestyle Factors: Certain lifestyle habits, such as a sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and smoking, have been linked to an increased risk of prostate enlargement.

Medical Conditions: Underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes and heart disease, can contribute to prostate swelling.

3. Symptoms of Prostate Swelling

The symptoms of prostate swelling can vary in severity and may include:

Frequent or Urgent Urination: Men with BPH often experience an increased need to urinate, especially at night (nocturia). This can disrupt sleep patterns and affect overall quality of life.

Difficulty Starting or Maintaining Urination: Prostate enlargement can obstruct the flow of urine, making it difficult to initiate or sustain urination.

Weak Urine Stream: A weakened urine stream or dribbling at the end of urination may indicate an enlarged prostate.

Incomplete Emptying of the Bladder: Men with BPH may feel like they have not fully emptied their bladder after urination.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): BPH can increase the risk of UTIs due to incomplete emptying of the bladder.

Hematuria: Blood in the urine (hematuria) may occur in some cases of prostate swelling.

Urinary Retention: In severe cases, BPH can lead to urinary retention, where the bladder is unable to empty completely, causing discomfort and potentially serious complications.

It’s important to note that while these symptoms are common in men with prostate swelling, they can also be indicative of other medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections or prostate cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

4. Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosing prostate swelling typically involves a combination of medical history evaluation, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. These may include:

Digital Rectal Examination (DRE): During a DRE, a healthcare provider inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel the size and shape of the prostate gland.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: A blood test that measures the level of PSA, a protein produced by the prostate gland. Elevated PSA levels may indicate prostate swelling or other prostate-related conditions.

Urinalysis: A urine sample may be analyzed for signs of infection or other abnormalities.

Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS): An imaging test that uses sound waves to create a picture of the prostate gland. TRUS can help evaluate the size and structure of the prostate and identify any abnormalities.

Uroflowmetry: A test that measures the rate and amount of urine flow. It can help assess the severity of urinary symptoms associated with prostate swelling.

Once diagnosed, the treatment approach for prostate swelling depends on the severity of symptoms, overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment options may include:

Watchful Waiting: For men with mild symptoms, especially those with minimal impact on daily life, a “watchful waiting” approach may be recommended. This involves regular monitoring of symptoms without immediate intervention.

Medications: Several medications are available to alleviate symptoms of BPH, including alpha-blockers, which relax the muscles around the prostate and bladder, and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, which reduce the production of DHT.

Minimally Invasive Procedures: In cases where medications are ineffective or not well-tolerated, minimally invasive procedures such as transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser therapy, or prostate artery embolization (PAE) may be recommended to relieve urinary symptoms.

Surgery: For severe cases of BPH, traditional surgical procedures such as open prostatectomy or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) may be necessary to remove excess prostate tissue and relieve urinary obstruction.

Lifestyle Modifications: Lifestyle changes, such as maintaining a healthy weight, staying physically active, limiting alcohol and caffeine intake, and practicing pelvic floor exercises, can help manage symptoms of prostate swelling.


Prostate swelling, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is a common condition that affects many men as they age. While not usually life-threatening, BPH can cause bothersome urinary symptoms that impact quality of life. Understanding the underlying causes of prostate swelling, recognizing its symptoms, and seeking timely medical evaluation are crucial steps in managing this condition effectively. With various treatment options available, tailored approaches can be implemented to alleviate symptoms and improve overall urinary function, allowing men to maintain a good quality of life despite prostate enlargement. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms suggestive of prostate swelling, it’s essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and guidance. Early diagnosis and intervention can lead to better outcomes and improved long-term health and well-being.


Q1. What does it mean when your prostate is inflamed?

When the prostate is inflamed, it’s often a condition known as prostatitis. This inflammation can cause various symptoms such as pain or discomfort in the groin, pelvis, or genital area, difficulty urinating, and sexual dysfunction. It can be caused by infection or other factors.

Q2. Can ejaculating help prostatitis?

Ejaculating may provide temporary relief for some individuals with prostatitis by helping to release built-up prostatic fluid. However, it’s not a reliable or long-term solution for managing the condition. Consulting a healthcare professional is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Q3. What happens after 7 days of not ejaculating?

After 7 days of not ejaculating, there might be an increase in sexual tension or arousal for some individuals due to the buildup of sexual fluids and hormones. However, this experience can vary greatly from person to person, and there is no universal outcome. Some may feel more relaxed, while others might experience heightened arousal or discomfort.

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